Civil Nuclear Facilities Worldwide Lack Cybersecurity

Chatham House conducted a year long study from 2014-2015 on the state of the cybersecurity of the world’s civil nuclear facilities.  To gather data for this report, Chatham House undertook literature review, interviewed practitioners in the fields of cybersecurity and nuclear issues, conducted roundtable workshops bringing together cybersecurity and nuclear experts from both the private and government sectors, and presented the findings and solicited feedback from experts at two NATO Advanced Research Workshops.

Chatham House Cyber-Nuclear

According to the report, titled Cyber Security at Civil Nuclear Facilities: Understanding the Risks, Chatham House found that cybersecurity risks at civil nuclear facilities are growing because:

  • Civil nuclear facilities are increasingly using commercial ‘off-the-shelf’ (“COTS”) software, which reduces costs but increases risk from hacking attacks;
  • The lack of awareness in the executive-level combined with the trend of digitization results in the lack of awareness and preparedness of personnel at the operation level of nuclear facilities;
  • The belief of a myth that nuclear facilities are not subject to cyber attacks because they are ‘air gapped’, meaning that they are completely isolated from the public internet;
  • Hacking is increasingly becoming easier to conduct and has become more widespread.

Further, the report identified major industry-wide, cultural, and technical challenges that civil nuclear facilities are currently facing, including:

  • The true extent of cyber threats are not being realized because of the lack of disclosure of cybersecurity incidents and collaboration with other industries that are more advanced in the area of cybersecurity;
  • There are scarce regulatory standards, meaning that the industry’s risk assessment standards may be inadequate;
  • Civil nuclear facilities in developing nations are particularly at risk because they have fewer resources to invest in cybersecurity;
  • There is a lack of communication between the cybersecurity personnel and nuclear plant personnel, which leads to the lack understanding of key cybersecurity procedures by nuclear plant personnel;
  • Personnel at civil nuclear facilities lack preparedness for a cybersecurity emergency because there are very little cybersecurity training and drills;
  • Many industrial control systems, more commonly known as SCADA systems, are ‘insecure by design’ because they were not developed with security in mind;
  • Patching these control systems are often difficult because they require the nuclear facility to reduce capacity.

The report ends with recommendations to address the specific risks identified that afflict the industry including:

  • Developed guidelines to measure cybersecurity risk in the industry;
  • Promote cyber insurance, which can help develop stronger risk assessments;
  • Increase dialogue between nuclear facility personnel and cybersecurity personnel to raise awareness of the cybersecurity risks involved in the industry;
  • Establish rules already not in place that will help change the cultural attitude toward cybersecurity, such as banning the use of personal USB devices on facility systems and changing default passwords.

Chatham House went further to include recommendations to develop international policy measures for nuclear facilities including:

  • Providing technical assistance and financial resources to developing nations to improve their cybersecurity capabilities. (Interestingly enough, this very same suggestion was made by a UN group in the context of the cybersecurity of information and communications technologies (“ICTs”));
  • Countries should be encouraged to adopt an effective regulatory approach to cybersecurity at nuclear facilities.  Most large nations already follow the Intentional Atomic Energy Agency’s (“IAEA”) guidance, so the report suggests that more resources should be provided to the IAEA to enable it to develop such recommendations and guidelines.

The full report can be found here.

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Authors

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Professor William Snyder

Professor William C. Snyderis a member of the faculty of the Institute for National Security and Counter-terrorism at Syracuse University after fifteen years with the United States Department of Justice.

Ryan D. White

Ryan D. WhiteRyan is currently a third year law student at Syracuse University College of Law, and is also pursuing a Master of Public Administration degree from Syracuse’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. Ryan spent time with Homeland Security Investigations while pursuing his undergraduate degree at Wesleyan University, and spent his first summer of law school as clerk for the U.S. Attorney’s Office in the Western District of New York. He is a member of Syracuse Law Review, the Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, and participates in the Veteran’s Legal Clinic. Full biography

Shelby E. Mann

Ryan D. WhiteShelby is a second year law student at the Syracuse University College of Law. She is the 2018-9 Editor in Chief of the Syracuse Law Review, as well as a member of the Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, and the senior editor for the Syrian Accountability Project. During her final year at the University of Missouri, she served as a full-time news producer for ABC 17 News. Shelby spent her first summer of law school at the Shelby County District Attorney General's Office in Memphis, Tenn., in the Public Corruption and Economic Crimes Unit. Full biography

Christopher w. FolkChristopher W. Folk

is a 2017 graduate of SU College of Law. A non-traditional student, Christopher returned to academia after spending nearly twenty years in the high tech industry. Christopher served in the Marine Corps, graduated from Cornell University with a B.S. In Applied Economics and Business Management, attended Northeastern University’s High-Tech MBA Program and received a M.S. In Computer Information Systems. Christopher previously worked in Software Engineering. Christopher is currently serving his second term as Town Justice for the Town of Waterloo. Christopher externed with a Cybersecurity firm in the Washington, D.C. area between his first and second year at SU College of Law. Full biography

Anna Maria Castillo

Anna Maria Castillois 2016 graduate of Syracuse College of Law. She also holds a Master of Arts in International Relations from Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. She has interned at a London-based think-tank that specializes in transnational terrorism and global security and at the legal department of a defense contractor. She served as an executive editor in the Syracuse Law Review. Full biography

Jennifer A. CamilloJennifer A. Camillo

is a 2015 graduate of Syracuse College of Law and is a prosecutor. She has served as a law clerk in the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of New York and the Cayuga County District Attorney’s Office and as an extern in the Oneida County District Attorney’s Office. She was a member of the Syracuse National Trial Team and was awarded the Tiffany Cup by the New York Bar Association for her trial advocacy achievements.

Tara J. PistoreseTara J. Pistorese

holds Juris Doctor and Masters of Public Administration degrees from Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and its College of Law. She wrote for this blog when a student. She is now a member of the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General's Corps.

Benjamin Zaiser

is both a scholar and a Federal Agent of the Federal Criminal Police Office of Germany. (Opinions expressed here are his own and not any part of official duty.) Full biography

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